What is ovarian cancer and how is it treated?

What is ovarian cancer and how is it treated?

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Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Assoc. Fatih Güçer, ovarian cancer in the United States, a recent study gave information about the results.

Recent studies in the United States revealed that a significant proportion of ovarian cancer patients underwent surgical treatment. This result was examined by examining the records of 10 432 ovarian cancer patients who were treated between 1999-2002 in 9 different states. This finding, which is an important factor that will directly affect the life expectancy of patients, raises some doubts about cancer treatment.

Ovarian cancer is the most common cancer in all gynecological cancers. The most important reason for the high rate of deaths from ovarian cancers is that the disease progresses without any signs in the early stages and 70% of the patients are in advanced stages in the initial diagnosis.

An important point in the treatment of ovarian cancer; is the first surgical intervention. Although the operation and the steps to be performed in this first surgical intervention are determined by various cancer research associations in certain standards; Due to different reasons all over the world, most of the patients do not receive surgical treatment in the best and appropriate way. The reasons for this include the surgical experience, knowledge and workload intensity of the operating physician in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Even if ovarian cancer is diagnosed at an early stage, the lymph nodes should be removed and samples taken for microscopic examination of the intra-abdominal membrane, as microscopic spread to the lymph nodes or intra-abdominal membrane is likely. Thus, it will be found that 30% of these patients who appear to be in the early stage are not in the early stage and spread microscopically. A recent study found that only 50% of patients in the early stage of treatment in the United States underwent adequate surgical evaluation. In this case, the actual extent of the disease cannot be determined in patients who have undergone surgical treatment.


Ovarian cancer is caused by the ovaries of a woman. Women have two ovaries on both sides of the uterus. In addition to producing eggs, ovaries are the main production site of the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. Approximately one quarter of ovarian cancers are detected at an early stage. Early detection of cancer increases the likelihood of treatment success. Nine out of 10 women treated for early stage ovarian cancer will survive at least 5 years after cancer diagnosis. During the gynecological examination, your doctor feels the shape and size of the female organs by hand. However, since the ovaries are deep, most ovarian cancers do not occur during a doctor's examination. While the PAP test is useful in the early diagnosis of cervical cancer, the same does not apply to ovarian cancer.

If you have symptoms, consult your doctor: Early symptoms of ovarian cancer are usually vague. It should be kept in mind that these symptoms are usually due to non-cancerous causes rather than cancer.


    • • Abdominal swelling
    • • Unexpected vaginal bleeding
    • • Abdominal pressure
    • • Back or leg pain
    • Problems such as gas, bloating, long-term indigestion

When these symptoms are thought to be associated with ovarian cancer, the cancer may have spread outside the ovaries. Most ovarian cancers spread easily to the surface of organs in the abdomen. Knowing and paying attention to the symptoms can lead to early detection and successful treatment of cancer. If any of the above symptoms develop, consult your doctor immediately.


There are several surgical procedures for ovarian cancer. The name of these surgical procedures is determined using the name of the removed organ in Greek or Latin. When a structure is surgically removed, the name of the surgery usually ends with ekt --ectomy.. For example, the removal of the uterus is called ister hysterectomy ”and the removal of the ovary is called of oopherectomy..

If both ovaries or uterus have been removed, the person cannot become pregnant. Most women stay in the hospital for 3 to 7 days after surgery. The recovery period is usually 4 to 6 weeks. If the entire tumor cannot be removed, the surgeon removes as much tumor tissue as possible. This process is called itor cytoreduction.. Cytoreduction is very important as it significantly reduces the life expectancy of the patient.

Treatment of ovarian cancer depends on how much the cancer has spread. Single or both ovaries can be removed in cases with early stage if the child wishes. Your doctor may recommend removal of other female reproductive organs. Chemotherapy may also be added to treatment in early stage cancers. For stage III and IV cancers, the tumor should be removed as much as possible. Chemotherapy is usually performed after surgery. If recurrence, chemotherapy and surgery can be applied again.

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