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Generally speaking, cesareans are not lengthy surgeries, whether the patient is large or small, and in the vast majority of cases they cause very few problems.
One issue that sometimes comes up, though rarely, is that if the woman has a lot of fat on her abdominal wall, the increased thickness of the wall makes it harder to see into the abdomen and have a clear view of what you're doing during the surgery. She could experience greater blood loss because you're cutting through a thicker layer of tissue with more blood vessels. And bleeding in turn can interfere with the view into the abdomen. But this is generally only a potential issue for more-obese women.
A thicker abdominal wall may also require a slightly longer incision for easier access to the uterus. A longer incision shouldn't cause any problems later on. Or a doctor may choose to make a vertical incision, which is associated with less blood loss, a quicker surgery, and a better view of the uterus. A vertical incision doesn't necessarily heal any faster or slower than a horizontal incision or cause additional problems.
But these situations aren't common, and most women have c-sections without major problems.
As for recovery from a c-section, larger women do have an increased risk of a common problem: infection at the incision site. This is usually due to excess serous fluid leaking from fat tissue. Serous fluids are harmless, near-colorless fluids that exist in your body in various forms, but when the fluid collects in a wound it create a moist environment that's perfect for bacteria to thrive in. You'll just need to change the dressing on your incision often to keep the wound as dry as possible. Also, after you bathe, make sure to dry the incision site completely.
Watch one mom's emergency c-section and learn how the surgery is done.